Glossary

ABRASION RESISTANCE: The resistance of a surface to rubbing or wearing away by friction.

ACCELERATED AGING: Procedures for subjecting pressure sensitive materials to special environmental conditions in order to predict the course of natural aging in a much shorter period of time.

ACRYLIC ADHESIVE: An adhesive based on high strength acrylic polymers.

ADHESION: A bond established upon contact between two surfaces.

a) Ultimate Adhesion: The maximum bond established between a product and the surface to which it is adhered. The time required to reach ultimate adhesion varies with the adhesive, but it is usually in the range of 72 – 96 hours.
b) Peel Adhesion: The force required to remove a strip of pressure-sensitive material from a surface at a fixed rate of removal. Peel adhesion can be measured at 90„a or 180„a from the surface.
c) Shear Adhesion: The force required to pull a pressure-sensitive material from a standard flat surface in a direction parallel to the surface to which it has been affixed. It is usually expressed as the time required for a one square inch sample to slide off a metal panel when pulled by a specific weight.

ADHESIVE: A substance capable of holding materials together by surface contact.

ADHESIVE BLEED: A condition in which adhesive has oozed out or has been mechanically drawn from under the edge of a pressure-sensitive material through a split in the back of the material or through the edge of sheeted stock.

ADHESIVE RESIDUE: The adhesive remaining on a substrate when a self-adhesive material is removed from the substrate.

ADHESIVE SKIP: An area without adhesive.

AGING: Refers to a progressive change in properties as time elapses. Aging can be “natural” when the temperature and humidity are those encountered naturally, or it can be “accelerated” by elevating the temperature.

CALIPER: Thickness, usually measured in mils (thousandth of an inch).

CARRIER: A term sometimes used to describe the stock to which two layers of adhesive are applied in a double-coated construction.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: The resistance of a pressure-sensitive material to chemical deterioration.

COHESIVE STRENGTH: The internal strength of an adhesive mass.

COHESIVE FAILURE: The mode of failure wherein the adhesive splits, leaving some residue on the substrate and on the liner.

COLD FLOW: The tendency of a pressure-sensitive adhesive to act like a heavy, viscous liquid over long periods of time. Such phenomena as oozing and/or increases in adhesion are the results of this characteristic.

CONFORMABILITY: The ability of pressure-sensitive material to yield to the contours of a surface (curved or rough).

CREEP: The lateral movement of an applied pressure-sensitive substrate due to low cohesive strength.

CURL: Material that does not lay flat when slit or sheeted.

CUTS: The number of rolls slit from a master roll.

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: The property of a material that enables it to resist length, width, or thickness changes under varying conditions of heat, cold, moisture, or other influences.

DRAWDOWN: Small hand-prepared sample.

DRY EDGE: A lack of coating on the edge of the web.

EDGE SEALER: A material designed to provide additional security and durability after application of a pressure-sensitive product to a substrate.

FACE MATERIAL (base material, face stock): Any paper, film, or fabric suitable for making into a pressure-sensitive material.

HEAT RESISTANCE: The property of a material that inhibits the occurrence of physical or chemical changes caused by exposure to high temperatures.

HOLDING POWER: The ability to withstand stress or hold weight. Involves both adhesive and cohesive strength.

LAMINATE (verb): Apply one layer of material over another.

LAMINATION: Two or more materials bonded together.

LAY FLAT (stay flat): A material with good non-curling characteristics.

LEGGING: The stringing out of a pressure-sensitive adhesive. May occur during die cutting and stripping.

LEXAN: General Electric Company’s registered trademark for polycarbonate film.

LINER RELEASE: Separation of the liner from the pressure sensitive adhesive immediately before it is applied to the substrate.

MACHINE DIRECTION (Web Direction): The direction of a base stock parallel to its movement through the coater.

MASTER ROLL: A full width roll that has finished the primary manufacturing process and is usually untrimmed.

MATERIAL SPLICE: An area where tape has been used to attach two rolls of material (vinyl, polyester, etc.) together to form one continuous web.

MEMORY: The property of a material that causes it to attempt to return to its original dimensions after being distorted.

METALLIZED FILM: A plastic film that has been coated on one side with a very thin layer of metal.

MIGRATION: The movement of one or more of the components of a pressure-sensitive adhesive to the substrate or vice versa.

MIL (.001″): One thousandth of an inch.

MOISTURE VAPOR TRANSMISSION (moisture vapor transmission rate): A measure of the rate of water vapor transmission through a specific material.

NATURAL AGING: The change in a material that occurs when it’s exposed to normal environmental conditions.

OFFCUT: That part o the trim width that is not utilized. For example, if a customer orders thirteen 4″ cuts out of 54″ finished roll, there is a 2″ off cut. 54″ / (13 x 4″).

OVERLAMINATING: Application of a clear film to a label stock for the purpose of protection or to enhance graphic quality.

OOZE: Adhesive moving out of the ends of rolls, stacks, or sheets causing ends to feel sticky and possibly causing material to block.

PIPING (tunneling): The material fails to adhere to the release paper or film tightly enough and a line of air forms between them, usually starting at one edge and working across the web.

PLASTICIZER: A substance added to a material to impart flexibility, workability, and dispensability.

PLASTICIZER MIGRATION: The migration of liquid plasticizers from some plastics into an adhesive and/or substrate that may cause excessive softening or degradation of the adhesive.

POLYCARBONATE: A high-clarity film combining the versatility of acetate with the durability of polyester. It is intended for interior use and may be used in many applications previously processed with polyester or similar films.

POLYESTER: A strong film having good resistance to moisture, solvents, oils, and many other chemicals. It’s usually transparent, although it is available with a metallized finish.

POLYETHYLENE: A tough, stretchy plastic film having very good low temperature characteristics. Often used for producing semi-rigid bottles.

POLYPROPYLENE: Similar to polyethylene but stronger and having higher temperature resistance.

PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVE: A type of adhesive that is tacky at room temperature and adheres to a variety of dissimilar surfaces on contact by finger or hand pressure.

RELEASE: The force required to remove the release liner from the face stock at a specified speed and angle.

RELEASE LINER: The component of the pressure-sensitive adhesive laminate that protects the adhesive prior to application and readily separates from the adhesive immediately before application to the substrate.

REMOVABILITY: A relative term to describe the force or condition under which a pressure-sensitive adhesive can be removed from a substrate.

REMOVABLE ADHESIVE: A pressure-sensitive adhesive characterized by low ultimate adhesion and clean removability from a wide variety of surfaces.

RESIDUE: Adhesive left on the substrate after removal.

RUBBER BASED ADHESIVE: A pressure-sensitive adhesive based on natural or synthetic rubber.

SERVICE TEMPERATURE: The temperature range that a pressure-sensitive adhesive will withstand after 72-hour residence time on the substrate.

SHEAR STRENGTH: The internal or cohesive strength of the adhesive.

SHELF LIFE: The period of time during which a product can be stored under specified conditions and still remain suitable for use.

SOLVENT: A dissolving, thinning, or reducing agent. Specifically, a solvent is a liquid that dissolves another substance.

SOLVENT ADHESIVE: An adhesive component that is dissolved in an organic solvent for coating. Rubber or acrylic based systems can be coated this way.

SOLVENT RESISTANCE: The resistance of a pressure-sensitive adhesive to the destructive action of specific organic liquids.

SPECIFIC ADHESION: The relative tendency of an adhesive to form a bond on a specific surface. For example, some adhesives may be permanent on one surface and removable from another.

STABILIZE: To increase the steadiness of a film and keep it from changing or fluctuating. Usually laminating polyester to one or both sides of the vinyl stabilizes vinyl films.

SUBSTRATE: The surface to which an adhesive is applied.

TACK (grab): The ability of an adhesive to latch onto a substrate with a minimum of pressure. Also called “quick stick”, “initial tack”, or “finger tack”.

TENSILE STRENGTH: The force parallel to the plane of the substrate required to break a given width and length under specified conditions.

TIGHT RELEASE: The adhesive does not release from liner freely.

TRANSFER TAPE: An adhesive put on a differential release liner in such a manner as to have a higher value of release from one surface than from the other. Thus, if the backing is pulled away from the adhesive after application to the substrate, it will remain on the side with the higher release.

TRANSVERSE DIRECTION (Cross direction): The direction of a substrate from left to right and from side to side as opposed to the web direction (90 degrees to the machine direction).

U.V. (Ultraviolet Light): That part of the spectrum wherein the wavelength of light is shorter than that of visible light.

U.V. CURING: A system that uses ultraviolet rays to facilitate the curing process.

U.V. RESISTANCE: The ability of any material to withstand extended exposure to U.V. light without
degradation, hardening, or excessive discoloration.

VINYL: A synthetic plastic that can be made in film, sheet, or other forms and can be manufactured in rigid or flexible constructions. They are generally more flexible and formable than polyesters. Also known as PVC or polyvinyl chloride.

VISCOSITY: The flow rate of an adhesive.

VOID: An area of an adhesive-coated substrate that does not have the coating.

WEATHERABILITY: Ability of an adhesive to withstand the effects of weathering.

WEB: The material in a roll as it is unwound.

WET OUT: The ability of an adhesive to spread, thereby filling in the hills and valleys of the substrate.

YELLOWING: A gradual change in the original appearance of a material characterized by the development of yellow and brown hues.